What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations.
It turns out, there are some really interesting ways our decisions are affected that I never would Discuss the way situations might influence guessed.
Luckily, we can take action to improve most of these. What happens in your brain when you make decisions Obviously lots of things take place inside your brain as you make a decision. The funny thing is, in some countries, the box was an opt-in option, so people had to check the box to become an organ donor.
And still no one checked the box. So it was all down to the design of the forms: If you watch the video all the way through, there are lots more examples of how this works in our brains.
Often, we end up simply choosing anything, just to get the process over and done with. For a judge hearing a parole case, that safer, low-risk option would be to deny parole and keep the prisoner behind bars.
As their string of cases grew longer and longer leading up to a break, the chances of a prisoner being awarded parole diminished substantially. Here is a terrific graph describing this how chances of favorable decisions are going down: The study showed the following results: The research was done by Shai Danziger from Ben Gurion University of the Negev, and examined the results of 1, parole board hearings in Israeli prisons over a ten-month period.
The influence of the time since each judge had had a break was significant on the types of decisions they would make: So the decision-making part of our brain works kind of like our physical muscles—the more we work it, the more tired it gets until we finally give it a break to recover and start over.
Shiv says this is a good thing because we feel less risk averse in the morning due to the serotonin in our brains, so we can take risks and make harder choices early in the morning.
If you know you are going to be making an important decision at say 4 pm, schedule some rest period immediately before that time. Why we make better decisions in a foreign language This one actually makes a lot of sense, but it surprised me at first.
When a decision is verbally framed as involving a gain, humans prefer a sure outcome over a probabilistic outcome. When the same situation is framed as involving losses, people sometimes prefer to gamble.
If the formally identical illness scenario is provided, but framed in terms of how many people will die, then research participants are more likely to choose the probabilistic option.
The Chicago researchers randomly assigned bilinguals to read and respond to decision-making scenarios using either their native or foreign language. Similar versions of the study were conducted in the U. S, France and Korea.
Data from all three locations were consistent: The implication is that people were less influenced by emotional aspects of the scenarios when reading scenarios in their foreign language.
How our bodies play a part in our decision-making I would have thought our brains had the biggest role in how we make decisions but I was surprised to realize that our bodies also play a big part.
Why being hungry is bad for decision-making One of the funny things about how our bodies work is that sometimes feelings or states of being can spill over from one area to another.
Our physical desires work like this. Fasted individuals also make riskier bets on a financial decision-making task involving lottery choices, opting for the riskier option significantly more often when fasted, and choosing the safer bet when full.
This finding is supported by the animal literature, in which animals are more risk-averse when sated but risk-seeking when hungry.But, the situation in which someone is engaged has a profound influence on what they do.
Paying more attention to the context of behavior helps you to recognize these situational influences on. Affective Factors Influence Classroom Learning SOCIAL psychologists warn us environmental situations. He sees a large number of different patterns of in tellect, motivation, personality, and en way the teacher manages students' be.
Training on how to deal with situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations that involve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices.
Another step to increase the salience of ethics is to expand the information system to focus on areas where ethics may . It stands to reason that when something positive results from a decision, people are more likely to decide in a similar way, given a similar situation.
On the other hand, people tend to avoid repeating past mistakes (Sagi, & Friedland, ). Discuss the way situations might influence consumer attitudes.
For example, what might be the attitude of the consumer be late at night after a class? The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. Therefore, in making ethical decisions, one of the first questions to consider is 'what a reasonable man would do in this situation?'For tougher decisions, advisors may find three rules of management helpful (Hojnacki, ).