Includes bibliographical references p.
Thessen, Arika Virapongse Competing interests: The author s declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licencewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A new paradigm for the scientific enterprise: Declining public funding for basic science 12 has led academic institutions to change their business models 34 ; the administration of universities is becoming increasingly corporatized 5.
The evolving funding landscape at academic and research institutions has had a major impact on career opportunities for scientists, particularly those who are early-career.
As a result of grant dollars being increasingly awarded to a disproportionately small number of established investigators and institutes 11intellectual discovery has become captured by a privileged few 12leading to greater bias in scientific research, diminished scientific productivity 13and less potential for breakthrough discoveries 14 Such a lack of social diversity and equity is a major challenge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM 16 The career pipeline envisions a straight career path, from higher-education training to a coveted permanent position, and then up a career ladder until retirement Figure 1.
While such a direct path to success may be optimal for some, it does not reflect the reality of typical career development Box 1. The pipeline includes formal scientific training and different scientific career paths.
The pipeline is characterized as a set of distinct streams with little flow between each stream, and a career ladder within each sector.
Indeed, training models for graduate students, and particularly for PhDs, in STEM often focus on delivering them to a tenure-track faculty position.
Such a system has become a poverty trap for many graduate students and early PhDs, as they work long hours for low wages under the expectation that their participation in the pipeline will eventually lead to a permanent position in academia.
Much of the discussion around career prospects for PhDs assumes that they must find a traditional position in a university in order to continue pursuing their scientific goals Funding changes have also produced an academic structure that provides limited prospects for early-career scientists to advance their careers within academia 9.
Postdoctoral training periods also continue to expand.
While the increasing complexity of research may require longer training periods, it is unlikely that longer postdoc positions result in better researchers; many postdocs rarely get the appropriate direct training and mentoring to start an independent lab It is unknown how many promising, early-career scientists become trapped in postdoctoral limbo, as the morass of titles given to postdocs disguises the scale of the scientific workforce that exists in this state The ever-lengthening apprentice time for scientists has created a Red Queen's Race: While this model may have worked decades ago for those mostly male scientists that could rely on compliant spouses to raise families and perform domestic duties, it does not work in today's world.
By presenting it as such, the pool of tenured faculty is limited to those who have the means to commit to such a lifestyle: This demographic is steadily decreasing proportionally across the whole scientific research community, so career advice solely targeting this group is increasingly irrelevant.
Even after gaining a tenure-track position, the mechanics of gaining tenure can be just as rigid and unforgiving Should the conference abstracts published on indexed journals be taken into account as a publication? (effective), then it would take either seriously long times or lots of people to check.
HUMAN SERVICES RESEARCH DISSEMINATION: WHAT WORKS? FINAL REPORT OPRE Report # 40, 63, 64, ). Common distribution practices such as posting or publishing indings are not suficient for policy, practice, and research ields to ind and utilize them (14, 36, 60, 64, from four theories were part of the literature search.
J.W. Cals, D.
KotzEffective writing and publishing scientific papers, part X: choice of journal. Biomedical journals are the main route for disseminating the results of health-related research. Despite this, their editors operate largely without formal training or certification.
To our knowledge, no body of literature systematically identifying core competencies for scientific editors of biomedical journals exists. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a scoping review to determine what is known. In the context of scientific literature, an analysis of manuscripts from seven journals found no overall difference in the acceptance rates of papers according to gender, while at the same time reporting a strong effect of number of authors and country of affiliation on manuscripts’ acceptance rates.
v Foreword Writing and publishing a scientific research paper Research today has become an integral part of every professional’s life. Once the.