When an electron beam impinges on a solid surface, it loses energy primarily by electron-electron interactions. In those interactions, the energy gained by electrons in the solid is often sufficient to ionize them; the electrons thus ionized are called secondary electrons SE.
See also academic content standards. Academic Content Standards Academic content standards are developed by state departments of education to demonstrate what they expect all students to know and be able to do in the core content areas. According to NCLBELL students "will meet the same challenging State academic content and student academic achievement standards as all children are expected to meet.
Academic English The English language ability required for academic achievement in context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. Accommodation for English Language Learners Adapting language spoken or written to make it more understandable to second language learners.
Accommodation For Students With Disabilities Techniques and materials that allow individuals with LD to complete school or work tasks with greater ease and effectiveness. Examples include spellcheckers, tape recorders, and expanded time for completing assignments. Accuracy The ability to recognize words correctly.
Adequate Yearly Progress AYP An individual state's measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. Affective Filter The affective filter is a metaphor that describes a learner's attitudes that affect the relative success of second language acquisition.
Negative feelings such as lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence and learning anxiety act as filters that hinder and obstruct language learning. This term is associated with linguist Stephen Krashen's Monitor Model of second language learning. Affix Part of word that is "fixed to" either the beginnings of words prefixes or the endings of words suffixes.
The word disrespectful has two affixes, a prefix dis- and a suffix -ful. Age Equivalent Score In a norm-referenced assessment, individual student's scores are reported relative to those of the norming population.
This can be done in a variety of ways, but one way is to report the average age of people who received the same score as the individual child. Thus, an individual child's score is described as being the same as students that are younger, the same age, or older than that student e.
Alphabetic Principle The basic idea that written language is a code in which letters represent the sounds in spoken words.
Americans With Disabilities Act ADA A federal law that gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion.
It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications. For more information, go to The Americans with Disabilities Act.
Analogy-based Phonics In this approach, students are taught to use parts of words they have already learned to read and decode words they don't know. They apply this strategy when the words share similar parts in their spellings, for example, reading screen by analogy to green.
Students may be taught a large set of key words for use in reading new words. Analytic Phonics In this approach, students learn to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words. They do not pronounce sounds in isolation.
AMAOs indicate how much English language proficiency reading, writing, speaking, listening, and comprehension children served with Title III funds are expected to gain each year.
Annual increases in the number or percentage of children making progress in learning English. Annual increases in number or percentage of children attaining English proficiency.
See also formative assessment and summative assessment. Assistive Technology Equipment that enhances the ability of students and employees to be more efficient and successful.
For more information, go to "LD Topics: A person can be predominantly inattentive often referred to as ADDpredominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of these two. Attention Deficit Disorder ADD see ADHD Auditory Discrimination Ability to detect differences in sounds; may be gross ability, such as detecting the differences between the noises made by a cat and dog, or fine ability, such as detecting the differences made by the sounds of letters "m" and "n.
Auditory Memory Ability to retain information which has been presented orally; may be short term memory, such as recalling information presented several seconds before; long term memory, such as recalling information presented more than a minute before; or sequential memory, such as recalling a series of information in proper order.
Students with APD often do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words. For more information, go to Auditory Processing Disorder in Children.
Authentic Assessment Authentic assessment uses multiple forms of evaluation that reflect student learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on classroom activities.ESOL: ESOL Writing: sentence focus (punctuation and grammar), ESOL Writing Resource type: Worksheet or assignment Level: E3.
This revision task aims to prepare students for the Entry 3 ESOL writing test. It portrays a sample student answer to Task 1 Cambridge ESOL E3 Test with accompanying teacher feedback. The idea is that . Before posting, please read this section.
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What courses will be studied? Students will undertake a specialist ESOL qualification plus Maths, Entry Level Science, Entry Level History and an Entry Level Certificate in Vocational Studies.
Jun 05, · Mix - Entry 3 Esol writing exam task assessed YouTube ESOL Skills for Life Entry Level 3 - Conversation sample video - . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
General Admissions Eligibility. As provided herein, requirements for admission to Florida Community College at Jacksonville shall be approved by the District Board of Trustees, shall be maintained in the College’s official curricular files, and shall be reflected in the College Catalog.