Writing an essay for history is not necessarily the same as it may be for an English class. Strong thesis statements usually need to include about 3 points that you intend to prove through the essay.
Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding. And the means by which they carry the duties into practice is singleness.
Some are born with the knowledge of those duties; some know them by study; and some acquire the knowledge after a painful feeling of their ignorance.
But the knowledge being possessed, it comes to the same thing. Some practice them with a natural ease; some from a desire for their advantages; and some by strenuous effort. But the achievement being made, it comes to the same thing.
Confucius If a Western person is not aware of the very different relational presumptions built into Confucian ideas of reciprocal duty, he or she is likely to presume that the independent pursuit of needs and wants is central to involvement in such relationships.
Robert Westwood does this when he sums up the Confucian position from a Western perspective. He assumes that all individuals are 'free actors' who 'lose freedom' when they are required to accept super-ordinate or subordinate hierarchical status.
It is this that allows him to speak about relative 'power' in hierarchical, interdependent relationships: Challenges to authority and the 'natural' order are not countenanced. This is encapsulated in the Confucian precepts of the so-called 'Five Cardinal Relationships' or wu lun, which delineate a hierarchical power structure over key societal relationships.
The wu lun are dyadic sets of unequal, mostly hierarchical relationships between emperor - minister, father - son, husband - wife, older brother - younger brother, friend - friend. Although the power structure is differentiated and unequal except for the lattermutual obligations and reciprocities are inherent in the relationships.
The person in the dominant position expects and receives obedience, deference and compliance, but in return should respect the dignity of the lower party and provide appropriate care and concern.
Chinese often view themselves interdependent with the surrounding social context, and it is the 'self in relation to other' that becomes the focal individual experience. This view of an interdependent self is in sharp contrast to the Western view of an independent self.
The latter sees each human being as an independent, self-contained, autonomous entity who a comprises a unique configuration of internal attributes e. This divergent view of self has implications for a variety of basic psychological processes e. It is very easy for a researcher or commentator to apply his or her own understandings of the nature of relationships to those observed in other communities.
Westwood does this when he assumes that hierarchical relationships must involve dominance and subservience, relative power and powerlessness. These are features of relationships between individuals who define themselves as 'free actors'.
They see relationships of dependence in terms of costs and benefits and degrees of loss of independence The independent self is quintessentially Western. The interdependent self, in one guise or another, is found in communities where individuals know who they are through the forms of relationship they recognize between themselves and other members of the community.
They perceive rights and responsibilities as qualities of the interactants rather than inhering in the 'objects' of interaction as rules of acquisition. In such communities the rights and obligations of individuals in exchange relationships remain with the interactants rather than being attached to the objects of exchange.
So, the other party in an exchange is the focus, rather than the needs and wants of the interactants.Arnold's lucid and slender book is worthy of praise for its concision and accessible writing style.
The clear writing enables non-specialists to entertain some of the central questions in Historiography and Philosophy of History. Book Introduction, Preface, Or Foreword? Before you write an introduction and dive in on writing the rest of your book, you first have to check if what you’re writing is actually an attheheels.com you aren’t careful it might be a preface or a foreword instead.
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By Marty Brounstein, Malcolm Kushner. Created with CAST's UDL Book Builder. The purpose of this guide is to walk a high school student through an easy step-by-step process of writing an historical essay. Writing an essay for history is not necessarily the same as it may be for an English class.
When writing your introduction there are a few ideas you need to keep in mind. The official Colonial Williamsburg history and citizenship site featuring colonial history, research, podcasts, teacher resources, kid's games, and support the Foundation's mission. Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.