This followed the beginning of socio-economic liberalisation policies from the mids and political pluralism in the mids.
Advanced Search Abstract There is growing concern that health policies and programmes may be contributing to disparities in health and wealth between and within households in low-income settings.
However, there is disagreement concerning which combination of health and non-health sector interventions might best protect the poor.
Potentially promising interventions include those that build on the social resources that have been found to be particularly critical for the poor in preventing and coping with illness costs.
In this paper we present data on the role of one form of social resource—community-based organizations CBOs —in household ability to pay for health care on the Kenyan coast. We describe the complex hierarchy of CBOs operating at the strategic, intermediate and local level in both settings, and comment on the potential of working through these organizations to reach and protect the poor.
We highlight the challenges around several interventions that are of particular international interest at present: We argue the importance of identifying and building upon organizations with a strong trust base in efforts to assist households to meet treatment costs, and emphasize the necessity of reducing the costs of services themselves for the poorest households.
Illnessability to paysocial relationscommunity-based organizationscommunity financinguser feesmicro-financetrust KEY MESSAGES Existing social resources provide a basis for protecting low-income households from the impoverishing effects of illness-related costs.
CBOs are one form of social resource that has considerable potential. Working with CBOs to strengthen health care affordability for households has challenges, which include: Protecting the poorest households through CBOs has particular challenges.
These households are less likely to belong to any CBO, and the CBOs they have formed themselves involve others of a similarly low socio-economic status and are therefore relatively fragile. Introduction Protecting the poor through interventions within and beyond the health sector Economic changes, structural adjustment policies and public sector reforms in developing countries have had a profound impact on health systems, the organization of health service delivery and the health seeking behaviour of communities and households Bloom et al.
Low-income households face growing and competing demands on their resources, and have to make choices between a bewildering array of health providers, many of whom are poorly regulated or supervised Davies and Sanders ; Gilson and Mills ; Brugha and Zwi ; Bloom et al.
There is growing concern that in these settings many health policies and programmes may not only be failing to reach the poorest groups, but might also be contributing to disparities in health and wealth between and within households Stierle et al.
While there is consensus that disadvantaged groups need protection, there is real disagreement concerning which combination of possible health and non-health sector interventions or approaches might be employed. Health sector interventions Recognition that many people, including the poor, seek treatment from a range of private for-profit providers, sometimes paying substantially, has been used to promote increasing privatization and private provider interventions, and in defence of public sector user fees Brugha et al.
However, these options, and their alternatives, remain highly contested, particularly on equity grounds payment on the basis of ability to pay, and equal opportunity of use for equal need Bennett et al. These concerns have led to a shift in interest among donors towards insurance or risk-sharing mechanisms in cost recovery Steirle et al.
National tax-based and social insurance schemes have limited potential in settings where a high proportion of the population operate in the informal or agricultural sector, and private or employment-based schemes can lead to the neglect of poorer groups Ensor In such settings—where formal sector schemes effectively cover only the relatively wealthy—appropriately designed and managed community-based health insurance schemes CBHIs are seen as a means of improving health service access, affordability, quality and community participation.
CBHIs can be both insurance where financial risks are shared among groups of people and prepayment schemes where an individual pays in advance for a set of defined, non-transferable health care benefits, such as five outpatient visits.
Interventions beyond the health sector Studies exploring the impact of cost of illness on households see, for example, reviews by Russell; McIntyre et al.THE ROLE OF NGOs IN URBAN POVERTY REDUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF KIBERA, NAIROBI Salim Mohamed MSc in Management and Implementation of Development Projects.
The paper then highlights the role of CSR in community development based on an international perspective due to the heterogeneity of CSR in its understanding and . Role Of NGOs In Women’s Empowerment, , , , Other, Human development can be attributed to different factors that directly affect the process of the growth of the human capital in any corner of the world.
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 1(13) 8 COMMUNITY GARDENS AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL AND MARKET GARDENS.
w the role of the church in rural development: a case study of the seventh-day adventist (sda) church in south nyanza district, kenya. v 4 by joshua otieno /ayiembai a thesis . Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), deservedly or not, have gained a reputation as the leading practitioners of rural development in Africa.