Steps to an ecology of mind

Exactly where geometry came from we are not sure, but the source has moved a little East of where people used to think it came from. Almost literally, geometry meant contact with the gods. Geometry was also a fundamental tool for making things by hand.

Steps to an ecology of mind

See Article History Carbon footprint, amount of carbon dioxide CO2 emissions associated with all the activities of a person or other entity e.

It includes direct emissions, such as those that result from fossil-fuel combustion in manufacturingheating, and transportationas well as emissions required to produce the electricity associated with goods and services consumed.

In addition, the carbon footprint concept also often includes the emissions of other greenhouse gasessuch as methanenitrous oxideor chlorofluorocarbons CFCs.

The carbon footprint concept is related to and grew out of the older idea of ecological footprinta concept invented in the early s by Canadian ecologist William Rees and Swiss-born regional planner Mathis Wackernagel at the University of British Columbia.

Steps to an ecology of mind

An ecological footprint is the total area of land required to sustain an activity or population. It includes environmental impacts, such as water use and the amount of land used for food production. In contrast, a carbon footprint is usually expressed as a measure of weight, as in tons of CO 2 or CO2 equivalent per year.

Rather than the greenhouse gas emissions associated with production, carbon footprints focus on the greenhouse gas emissions associated with consumption. They include the emissions associated with goods that are imported into a country but are produced elsewhere and generally take into account emissions associated with international transport and shipping, which is not accounted for in standard national inventories.

The per capita carbon footprint is highest in the United States. Averages vary greatly around the world, with higher footprints generally found in residents of developed countries. For example, that same year France had a per capita carbon footprint of 6.

For example, approximately 40 percent of total emissions in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century were from those sources. The secondary footprint includes carbon emissions emitted by food production.

It can be used to account for diets that contain higher proportions of meat, which requires a greater amount of energy and nutrients to produce than vegetables and grains, and foods that have been transported long distances. The manufacturing and transportation of consumer goods are additional contributors to the secondary carbon footprint.

For example, the carbon footprint of a bottle of water includes the CO2 or CO2 equivalent emitted during the manufacture of the bottle itself plus the amount emitted during the transportation of the bottle to the consumer.

A variety of different tools exist for calculating the carbon footprints for individuals, businesses, and other organizations. Commonly used methodologies for calculating organizational carbon footprints include the Greenhouse Gas Protocolfrom the World Resources Institute and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, and ISOa standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization dealing specifically with greenhouse gas emissions.

Several organizations, such as the U. Environmental Protection Agencythe Nature Conservancyand British Petroleumcreated carbon calculators on the Internet for individuals.

Steps to an ecology of mind

Such calculators allow people to compare their own estimated carbon footprints with the national and world averages.

Carbon footprint reduction Individuals and corporations can take a number of steps to reduce their carbon footprints and thus contribute to global climate mitigation. They can purchase carbon offsets broadly stated, an investment in a carbon-reducing activity or technology to compensate for part or all of their carbon footprint.

If they purchase enough to offset their carbon footprint, they become effectively carbon neutral. A sign notifying European Union consumers of a ban on watt incandescent lightbulbs. The ban went into effect on Sept. Individuals and corporations can reduce their respective carbon footprints by installing energy-efficient lighting, adding insulation in buildings, or using renewable energy sources to generate the electricity they require.

For example, electricity generation from wind power produces no direct carbon emissions.Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi. Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi (born ) is the only person in the world who has given a new dimension to education, training and research by advocating for having more number of job givers, rather than job seekers through a neological and a neocratic approach to teaching, training, research and other didactical process.

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Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment New Delhi -