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Modifications and survival of the idea of the crusade. Origin of the Crusades The origin of the Crusades is directly traceable to the moral and political condition of Western Christendom in the eleventh century.
At that time Europe was divided into numerous states whose sovereigns were absorbed in tedious and petty territorial disputes while the emperor, in theory the temporal head of Christendomwas wasting his strength in the quarrel over Investitures. The popes alone had maintained a just estimate of Christian unity ; they realized to what extent the interests of Europe were threatened by the Byzantine Empire and the Mohammedan tribes, and they alone had a foreign policy whose traditions were formed under Leo IX and Gregory VII.
The reform effected in the Church and the papacy through the influence of the monks of Cluny had increased the prestige of the Roman pontiff in the eyes of all Christian nations; hence none but the pope could inaugurate the international movement that culminated in the Crusades.
But despite his eminent authority the pope could never have persuaded the Western peoples to arm themselves for the conquest of the Holy Land had not the immemorial relations between Syria and the West favoured his design.
Europeans listened to the voice of Urban II because their own inclination and historic traditions impelled them towards the Holy Sepulchre.
From the end of the fifth century there had been no break in their intercourse with the Orient. In the early Christian period colonies of Syrians had introduced the religious ideasart, and culture of the East into the large cities of Gaul and Italy.
The Western Christians in turn journeyed in large numbers to SyriaPalestine, and Egypteither to visit the Holy Places or to follow the ascetic life among the monks of the Thebaid or Sinai.
There is still extant the itinerary of a pilgrimage from Bordeaux to Jerusalemdated ; in St. Paula founded the first Latin monasteries at Bethlehem. Even the Barbarian invasion did not seem to dampen the ardour for pilgrimages to the East. The Itinerary of St. Silvia Etheria shows the organization of these expeditions, which were directed by clerics and escorted by armed troops.
In the yearSt. As early as the eighth century Anglo-Saxons underwent the greatest hardships to visit Jerusalem. The journey of St. After their conquest of the West, the Carolingians endeavoured to improve the condition of the Latins settled in the East; in Pepin the Short entered into negotiations with the Caliph of Bagdad.
That churches and monasteries were built at Charlemagne's expense is attested by a sort of a census of the monasteries of Jerusalem dated "Commemoratio de Casis Dei" in "Itiner.
Inat the time of the pilgrimage of Bernard the Monk Itiner. In the tenth century, just when the political and social order of Europe was most troubled, knightsbishopsand abbotsactuated by devotion and a taste for adventure, were wont to visit Jerusalem and pray at the Holy Sepulchre without being molested by the Mohammedans.
Suddenly, inHakem, the Fatimite Caliph of Egyptin a fit of madness ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre and all the Christian establishments in Jerusalem.
For years thereafter Christians were cruelly persecuted. In the Frankish protectorate was overthrown and replaced by that of the Byzantine emperors, to whose diplomacy was due the reconstruction of the Holy Sepulchre.
The Christian quarter was even surrounded by a wall, and some Amalfi merchants, vassals of the Greek emperorsbuilt hospices in Jerusalem for pilgrims, e.iHeartMedia is a leading global media and entertainment company specializing in radio, digital, outdoor, mobile, social, live events and on-demand entertainment.
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